Halaman:Malay-English vocabulary.djvu/12

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References to the Grammar.

Words which are followed by numerals in parentheses are re- ferred to in the " Practical Malay Grammar " in the paragraphs of which the numbers are given, where in every case some Further explanation of such words will be found. By this means the Voca- bulary becomes to some extent an index to the Grammar, and in regard to the use of certain words the student is enabled to obtain a large amount of information which could not possibly be looked for in a Vocabulary.

Root Words and their Derivatives.

In the Malay language a very large number of words are derived from root words by the addition of prefixes or suffixes. Sometimes several prefixes and suffixes are attached to the same word, and there is so much variety in their use that it would be extremely cumbersome to insert all such derived words in alphabetical order as separate words. The plan which is followed in this vocabulary is that which has been adopted in all Malay dictionaries, namely to put all derived words under the head of the roots from which they are derived.

Some prefixes and suffixes are only used to form nouns, and others are used with verbs. The former are :

  • Prefix p, which denotes the agent.
  • Prefix p and suffix an, forming abstract nouns from verbs.
  • Prefix per and suffix an, forming verbal nouns from verbs.
  • Prefix k and suffix an, forming nouns from adjectives and nouns
  • Suffix an forming nouns from verbs, and usually expressing the thing which is affected by the action.

The verbal forms are :

  • Prefix ber, which forms present participles with intransitive verbs.
  • Prefix ter, which forms past participles.
  • Prefix di-, which forms the passive voice.
  • Prefix m, used with transitive verbs.
  • Suffixes kan and i, which form transitive verbs.

In this vocabulary the derivatives will be found in the follow- ing order: (1) compound words and phrases formed with the simple root in combination with other words; (2) the verbal derivatives; (3) derived nouns. Only those derivatives are given which are in ordinary use; the fact that any particular derived form is not found in the vocabulary must not be taken as an indication that it cannot be used.

In the case of words which are essentially verbs or can be used as verbs in the root form, the derivative formed with the prefix b<>r or ///. as the case may be, is given immediately after the root. Where the prefix ber is thus given it may be taken to indicate that the verb is in-